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The musculoskeletal system is largely derived from mesoderm with contributions from the neural crest. The skeleton is divided into axial and appendicular components.

The
axial skeleton includes the skull, hyoid, vertebral column, ribs and sternum, while the appendicular skeleton includes the bones of the upper and lower limbs and the pectoral and pelvic girdles.

Skeletal muscle develops primarily from the paraxial mesoderm and lateral plate mesoderm.