The viscerocranium consists of the bones that form the skeleton of the face and lower jaw and hyoid. They are derived from the mesenchyme of the first three branchial arches. The first branchial arch divides into a maxillary process and a mandibular process. The second branchial arch is called the hyoid arch and it, together with the third branchial arch form the hyoid bone. The mesenchyme of first three branchial arches is of neural crest origin. In addition to formation of the bones of the face, the first two arches also give rise to the three pairs of ossicles of the middle ear cavity, the malleus, incus and stapes.