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Mind-Body Connection - Research

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Duke Center for Spiritual Theology and Health:

In addition to research on theology and health conducted at Duke, this website also lists current relevant publications outside of Duke.

The Center for Mind-Body Medicine:

Mind-body research and professional training courses.

Benson-Henry Institute for Mind Body Medicine:

Provides information for patients, training for professionals, and conducts research.

The National Center for Jewish Healing

Contains inform about Jewish healing, as well as resources and services.

Mind and Life Institute

Offers conferences, publications, and research focusing on the partnership of science and Buddhism.

Center for Mindfullness at the University of Massachusetts Medical School

Holds conferences and retreats, provides training, conducts research, and has a specialized program in Stress Reduction.


Gaventa, William C., Coulter, David L. Spirituality and Intellectual Disability: International Perspectives on the Effect of Culture and Religion on Healing Body, Mind, and Soul. New York: Haworth Pastoral Press, 2002

Summer Rain, Mary. Earthway: A Native American Visionary's Path to Total Mind, Body, and Spirit Health. New York: Pocket Books, 1992.

Chirban, John T. Personhood: Orthodox Christianity and the Connection Between Body, Mind, and Soul. Westport, Connecticut: Bergin & Garvey, 1996.

Levin, Jeff. God, Faith, and Health: Exploring the Spirituality-Healing Connection. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, 2002.

Koenig, Harold G., Cohen, Harvey J. The Link between Religion and Health: Psychoneuroimmunology and the Faith Factor. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Goleman, Daniel. Healing Emotions: Conversations with the Dalai Lama on Mindfulness, Emotions, and Health. Boston, Massachusetts: Shambhala Publications, 2003.

Chopra, Deepak, Simon, David. The Seven Spiritual Laws of Yoga: A Practical Guide to Healing Body, Mind, and Spirit. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2004.

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Journal Articles

Mind Body Connection (General)

(1996). "The mind-body connection--anxiety, panic, mood and compulsion." Int J Fertil Menopausal Stud 41(6): 498-505.

(1999). "Mind-body connection in irritable bowel syndrome." Johns Hopkins Med Lett Health After 50 11(8): 6.

(2004). "Depression and physical symptoms: the mind-body connection." J Clin Psychiatry 65(6): 867-76.

Eliopoulos, C. (1998). "The mind-body connection." Director 6(3): 114-5.

Helene, B. and P. Ford (2000). "Mind-body innovations--an integrative care approach." Psychiatr Q 71(1): 47-58.

Khansari, D. N., A. J. Murgo, et al. (1990). "Effects of stress on the immune system." Immunol Today 11(5): 170-5.

McCaffrey, R., T. L. Frock, et al. (2003). "Understanding chronic pain and the mind-body connection." Holist Nurs Pract 17(6): 281-7; quiz 288-9.

Petersen, B. (1996). "The mind-body connection." Can Nurse 92(1): 29-31.

Smith, M. M. and J. L. Bryant (2002). "Mind-body and mind-gut connection in inflammatory bowel disease." Gastroenterol Nurs 25(5): 213-7.

Mind Body Connection and Spirituality

(2007). "Nursing the needs of the body, mind and spirit." Can Nurse 103(6): 6-7.

Astin, J. A. and K. Forys (2004). "Psychosocial determinants of health and illness: integrating mind, body, and spirit." Adv Mind Body Med 20(4): 14-21.

Banks, J. W. (2006). "The importance of incorporating faith and spirituality issues in the care of patients with chronic daily headache." Curr Pain Headache Rep 10(1): 41-6.

Benson, H. and J. A. Dusek (1999). "Self-reported health, and illness and the use of conventional and unconventional medicine and mind/body healing by Christian Scientists and others." J Nerv Ment Dis 187(9): 539-48.

Chavan, D. V. (2007). "Vipassana: the Buddha's tool to probe mind and body." Prog Brain Res 168: 247-53.

Coruh, B., H. Ayele, et al. (2005). "Does religious activity improve health outcomes? A critical review of the recent literature." Explore (NY) 1(3): 186-91.

Costa, R. M. and L. A. Oliveira (2006). "[Body and mind health. Analysis of the accounts of the Saint Augustin hermits on their healthcare activities]." Servir 54(6): 264-73.

Curlin, F. A., S. A. Sellergren, et al. (2007). "Physicians' observations and interpretations of the influence of religion and spirituality on health." Arch Intern Med 167(7): 649-54.

Dalmida, S. G. (2006). "Spirituality, mental health, physical health, and health-related quality of life among women with HIV/AIDS: integrating spirituality into mental health care." Issues Ment Health Nurs 27(2): 185-98.

Dossey, B. M. and L. Dossey (1998). "Body-mind-spirit. Attending to holistic care." Am J Nurs 98(8): 35-8.

Erickson, H. L. (2007). "Philosophy and theory of holism." Nurs Clin North Am 42(2): 139-63, v.

Fitzpatrick, A. L., L. J. Standish, et al. (2007). "Survival in HIV-1-positve adults practicing psychological or spiritual activities for one year." Altern Ther Health Med 13(5): 18-20, 22-4.

Freeman, D. W., R. Wolfson, et al. (1998). "Spiritual dimensions of a mind-body group for people with severe mental illness." New Dir Ment Health Serv(80): 57-67.

Gallagher, E. B., A. L. Wadsworth, et al. (2002). "Religion, spirituality, and mental health." J Nerv Ment Dis 190(10): 697-704.

Garcia, O. D. (2001). "The unity of the human person: a central concept in the interface between medicine and theology." Linacre Q 68(1): 71-89.

Gerard, S., B. H. Smith, et al. (2003). "A randomized controlled trial of spiritual healing in restricted neck movement." J Altern Complement Med 9(4): 467-77.

Goldberg, B. (1997). "The mind-body-spirit connection." ASHA 39(3): 24-9, 31.

Gordon, J. S. and D. M. Edwards (2005). "MindBodySpirit Medicine." Semin Oncol Nurs 21(3): 154-8.

Hyman, M. A. (2007). "The first mind-body medicine: bringing shamanism into the 21st century." Altern Ther Health Med 13(5): 10-1.

Jahnke, R. (2007). "A conspiracy of miracles qi, spirit-mind-body, and the transformation of healthcare. Interview by Bonnie J. Horrigan." Explore (NY) 3(1): 46-54.

Jakovljevic, M. (2006). "The modern psychopharmacotherapy, mind-body medicine and science of well-being. Body, brain, mind & spirit: all for one, and one for all." Psychiatr Danub 18(3-4): 148-9.

Lea, L. (2004). "Body, mind, spirit and soul." Ment Health Today: 35-7.

Lloyd, L. F. and L. R. Dunn (2007). "Mind-body-spirit medicine: interventions and resources." JAAPA 20(10): 31-5.

Loizzo, J. J., L. J. Blackhall, et al. (2007). "Tibetan Medicine: A Complementary Science of Optimal Health." Ann N Y Acad Sci.

Luskin, F. (2004). "Transformative practices for integrating mind-body-spirit." J Altern Complement Med 10 Suppl 1: S15-23.

Ma, S. S. (2005). "The I Ching and the psyche-body connection." J Anal Psychol 50(2): 237-50.

Maddox, M. (2001). "Teaching spirituality to nurse practitioner students: the importance of the interconnection of mind, body, and spirit." J Am Acad Nurse Pract 13(3): 134-9.

Morris, E. L. (2001). "The relationship of spirituality to coronary heart disease." Altern Ther Health Med 7(5): 96-8.

Mytko, J. J. and S. J. Knight (1999). "Body, mind and spirit: towards the integration of religiosity and spirituality in cancer quality of life research." Psychooncology 8(5): 439-50.

Narayana, A. and G. S. Lavekar (2005). "Ayurveda gleaned through Buddhism." Bull Indian Inst Hist Med Hyderabad 35(2): 131-46.

Ng, S. M., J. K. Yau, et al. (2005). "The measurement of body-mind-spirit well-being toward multidimensionality and transcultural applicability." Soc Work Health Care 41(1): 33-52.

Schlitz, M. and W. Braud (1997). "Distant intentionality and healing: assessing the evidence." Altern Ther Health Med 3(6): 62-73.

Schotanus, W. M. (1997). "Healthy aging: the body/mind/spirit connection." J Med Assoc Ga 86(2): 127-8.

Seaward, B. L. (2000). "Stress and human spirituality: at the crossroads of mind-body-spirit healing." J Mich Dent Assoc 82(4): 28-32, 34.

Seeman, T. E., L. F. Dubin, et al. (2003). "Religiosity/spirituality and health. A critical review of the evidence for biological pathways." Am Psychol 58(1): 53-63.

Shapiro, D. H., Jr. (1990). "A sense of control, health, and illness: exploring the mind-body relationship and the socio-cultural/spiritual context: reflections on Bali." Int J Psychosom 37(1-4): 40-9.

Simmonds, J. G. (2004). "Heart and spirit: research with psychoanalysts and psychoanalytic psychotherapists about spirituality." Int J Psychoanal 85(Pt 4): 951-71.

Targ, E. (2002). "Healing HIV: mind, body, and spirit." Focus 17(2): 1-5.

Tatsumura, Y., G. Maskarinec, et al. (2003). "Religious and spiritual resources, CAM, and conventional treatment in the lives of cancer patients." Altern Ther Health Med 9(3): 64-71.

Taylor, E. J. (2005). "Spiritual complementary therapies in cancer care." Semin Oncol Nurs 21(3): 159-63.

Walsh, A. (1998). "Religion and hypertension: testing alternative explanations among immigrants." Behav Med 24(3): 122-30.

Wanning, T. (1993). "Healing and the mind/body arts: massage, acupuncture, yoga, t'ai chi, and Feldenkrais." AAOHN J 41(7): 349-51.


Erbsloh, J. (1970). "[Buddhistic meditation exercises from a medical viewpoint]." Z Psychother Med Psychol 20(1): 19-28.

Kreitzer, M. J., C. R. Gross, et al. (2005). "Longitudinal impact of mindfulness meditation on illness burden in solid-organ transplant recipients." Prog Transplant 15(2): 166-72.

Krisanaprakornkit, T., W. Krisanaprakornkit, et al. (2006). "Meditation therapy for anxiety disorders." Cochrane Database Syst Rev(1): CD004998.

Ott, M. J. (2004). "Mindfulness meditation: a path of transformation & healing." J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 42(7): 22-9.

Rigby, B. (1975). "Alternative medicine: transcendental meditation." Nurs Times 71(32): 1240-2.

Straveler, R. (2006). "Meditation in the dialysis clinic." Nephrol News Issues 20(2): 34.


(2006). "Mind and body: do music, imagery, touch, or prayer improve cardiac care?" Harv Mens Health Watch 11(5): 6-7.

Ameling, A. (2000). "Prayer: an ancient healing practice becomes new again." Holist Nurs Pract 14(3): 40-8.

Bleich, A. (2002). "[Intercessory prayer for health: a matter of faith, science or both]." Harefuah 141(6): 522-3.

Bodey, G. P., Sr. (2002). "Can the efficacy of prayer be tested?" Arch Intern Med 162(12): 1420.

Dossey, L. and D. J. Hufford (2005). "Are prayer experiments legitimate? Twenty criticisms." Explore (NY) 1(2): 109-17.

Harding, O. G. (2001). "The healing power of intercessory prayer." West Indian Med J 50(4): 269-72.

Jantos, M. and H. Kiat (2007). "Prayer as medicine: how much have we learned?" Med J Aust 186(10 Suppl): S51-3.

Maier-Lorentz, M. M. (2004). "The importance of prayer for mind/body healing." Nurs Forum 39(3): 23-32.

Mao, J. J., J. T. Farrar, et al. (2007). "Use of complementary and alternative medicine and prayer among a national sample of cancer survivors compared to other populations without cancer." Complement Ther Med 15(1): 21-9. Marai, I., Y. Bornstein, et al. (2002). "[Medicine and intercessory prayer]." Harefuah 141(6): 527-9.

Masters, K. S., G. I. Spielmans, et al. (2006). "Are there demonstrable effects of distant intercessory prayer? A meta-analytic review." Ann Behav Med 32(1): 21-6.

O'Connor, C. I. (2001). "Characteristics of spirituality, assessment, and prayer in holistic nursing." Nurs Clin North Am 36(1): 33-46.

Rosenbaum, C. C. (2007). "The role of the pharmacist--prayer and spirituality in healing." Ann Pharmacother 41(3): 505-7.

Schoenberger, N. E., R. J. Matheis, et al. (2002). "Opinions and practices of medical rehabilitation professionals regarding prayer and meditation." J Altern Complement Med 8(1): 59-69.

Sloan, R. P. and R. Ramakrishnan (2006). "Science, medicine, and intercessory prayer." Perspect Biol Med 49(4): 504-14.

Szegedy-Maszak, M. (2002). "Body and soul. Powerless prayer." US News World Rep 132(9): 49.

Tai Chi

Abbott, R. B., K. K. Hui, et al. (2007). "A Randomized Controlled Trial of Tai Chi for Tension Headaches." Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 4(1): 107-113.

Esch, T., J. Duckstein, et al. (2007). "Mind/body techniques for physiological and psychological stress reduction: stress management via Tai Chi training - a pilot study." Med Sci Monit 13(11): CR488-497.

Han, A., V. Robinson, et al. (2004). "Tai chi for treating rheumatoid arthritis." Cochrane Database Syst Rev(3): CD004849.

Lee, M. S., M. H. Pittler, et al. (2007). "Is Tai Chi an effective adjunct in cancer care? A systematic review of controlled clinical trials." Support Care Cancer 15(6): 597-601.

Lee, M. S., M. H. Pittler, et al. (2007). "Tai chi for rheumatoid arthritis: systematic review." Rheumatology (Oxford) 46(11): 1648-51.

Lee, M. S., M. H. Pittler, et al. (2007). "Tai chi for cardiovascular disease and its risk factors: a systematic review." J Hypertens 25(9): 1974-5.


(1998). "Yoga. The ultimate mind-body workout." Harv Health Lett 24(2): 4-5.

Brown, R. P. and P. L. Gerbarg (2005). "Sudarshan Kriya yogic breathing in the treatment of stress, anxiety, and depression: part I-neurophysiologic model." J Altern Complement Med 11(1): 189-201.

Gimbel, M. A. (1998). "Yoga, meditation, and imagery: clinical applications." Nurse Pract Forum 9(4): 243-55.

Gupta, N., S. Khera, et al. (2006). "Effect of yoga based lifestyle intervention on state and trait anxiety." Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 50(1): 41-7.

Khalsa, H. K. (2003). "Yoga: an adjunct to infertility treatment." Fertil Steril 80 Suppl 4: 46-51.

Khalsa, S. B. (2004). "Yoga as a therapeutic intervention: a bibliometric analysis of published research studies." Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 48(3): 269-85.

Kjellgren, A., S. A. Bood, et al. (2007). "Wellness through a comprehensive yogic breathing program - a controlled pilot trial." BMC Complement Altern Med 7: 43.

Mamtani, R. (2005). "Ayurveda and yoga in cardiovascular diseases." Cardiol Rev 13(3): 155-62.

Manocha, R., G. B. Marks, et al. (2002). "Sahaja yoga in the management of moderate to severe asthma: a randomised controlled trial." Thorax 57(2): 110-5.

Parshad, O. (2004). "Role of yoga in stress management." West Indian Med J 53(3): 191-4.

Shannahoff-Khalsa, D. S., B. B. Sramek, et al. (2004). "Hemodynamic observations on a yogic breathing technique claimed to help eliminate and prevent heart attacks: a pilot study." J Altern Complement Med 10(5): 757-66.

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