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Death and Dying - Research

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Religion and Spirituality in Death and Dying


A general introduction to the various Christian denominations and their view on assisted death


A general collection of books and resources to learn more about Death and Dying


BMC Palliative Care is an open access journal publishing original peer-reviewed research articles in the clinical, scientific, ethical and policy issues, local and international, regarding all aspects of hospice and palliative care for the dying and for those with profound suffering related to chronic illness.


Brief introduction to various faiths in the world and how they deal with the idea of death and dying


What a "good death" means to different people of different backgrounds

The Spiritual Care Education Program: A Project of Rigpa

Death and Dying in Catholicism

Embracing Our Dying is a resource for Catholics facing end-of-life issues

Issues in death and dying for Catholics

Introduction to Catholic rituals for preparation of death

A mega resource to other internet sites about death and dying, some pertaining to the Catholic faith

Encyclopedia of Death and Dying for Catholicism

Introduction to the Catholic approach to death and dying

Living and Dying According to the Voice of Faith

Archbishop outlines Catholic view on death, dying to ease confusion

Catholic Health Association of the United States

A resource for California Catholics

Catholic Medical Association

Death and Dying in Buddhism

Buddhist guide to death and dying

Amithba Hospice Service

Buddhist insight to death and dying

Death and Dying in Buddhism by Ajahn Jagaro

Karuna Hospice Services

Commentary on Buddhism and perspective on death, some excepts from the book, The Tibetan Book of the Dead

Death & Dying in Tibetan Buddhist Tradition, by Venerable Pende Hawter

That Religious Studies Website on Buddhism and Death/Dying

The Spiritual Needs of the Dying: A Buddhist Perspective

Introduction to the Buddhist Scriptures By Nina van Gorkom, a section on death

Encyclopedia on Death and Dying

Traditions of a Buddhist funeral

Death and Dying in Judaism

Orthodox perspective on death and dying

Jewish views on and practices regarding death

The Rabbi and the Maid: Jewish Views on Dying with Dignity

Jewish life cycle events

Encyclopedia on Death and Dying

What non-Jewish End-of-life Staff Workers should know about Judaism

Liberal Jewish Values and Practice Leaflets on Death & Mourning

Jewish burial society founded in Prescott

Judaism, euthanasia and suicide

Death and Mourning in Judaism

Establishment of International Jewish Burial Society


A Contemporary Hindu by Shoba Narayan

Hindu Rituals and Beliefs regarding death and dying

Gurudeva's audio discourse on death and dying in the Hindu tradition

"How I Sent My Father to Heaven" Proceedings of Hindu Death Ritual by Vikas Kamat

"How to approach death" Gyan Rahjans, an article on Hindu traditions

Palliative Care

Duke Center for Palliative Care

Vitas Hospice Charitable Fund

American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine

Center to Advance Palliative Care

Growth House, an organization to improve care for the dying

National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization

American Hospice Foundation

Promoting Excellence in End of Life Care

Resources for people facing life-limiting illness, their families, and their professional caregivers

Hospice Foundation of America

Supportive Care Coalition Web site

"The focus of our efforts is assisting Catholic health care organizations and their health care professionals to address the physical, emotional, psychosocial and spiritual needs of those suffering from life-threatening and/or chronic illness as well as those approaching the end of life."

Before I Die, a PBS program

Losing the Living: End of Life Care Resourcesapproaching, from Assisted Living Way

Medical Schools and Spirituality Programs

George Washington Institute for Spirituality and Health

Duke Center for Spirituality and Theology and Health

University of Minnesota's Center for Spirituality and Healing

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General Spirituality/Death and Dying

Ahronheim, Judith C. and We, Doron, Final passages: Positive Choices For The Dying And Their Loved Ones, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992.

Berger, Arthur, Perspectives on Death and Dying: Cross-Cultural and Multi-Disciplinary Views, Philadelphia: Charles Press, 1989.

Blackman, Sushila, Graceful Exits: How Great Beings Die: Death Stories of Tibetan, Hindu and Zen Masters, New York: Weatherhill, 1997.

Dempsey, David K. The Way We Die: An Investigation Of Death And Dying In America Today, New York: Macmillan, 1975.

DeSpelder, Lynne Ann and Strickland, Albert Lee, The Last Dance: Encountering Death and Dying, 7th Ed., McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages, 2004.

DuBruck, Edelgard E., and Barbara I. Gusick, eds. Death and Dying in the Middle Ages. New York: Peter Lang, 1999.

Fins, Joseph, A Palliative Ethic Of Care: Clinical Wisdom At Life's End, Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Bartlett, 2006.

Gilbert, Sandra M. Death's Door: Modern Dying and the Ways We Grieve, New York: W.W. Norton, 2006.

Glaser, Barney G. and Strauss, Anselm, Awareness of Dying, Chicago: Aldine Pub. Co., 1965.

Hayslip, Jr., Bert, Cynthia A. P., Cultural Changes in Attitudes Toward Death, Dying, and Bereavement, New York: Springer Pub. Co., 2005.

Hill, T. Patrick, A Good Death: Taking More Control at the End of Your Life / Choice in Dying, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., 1992.

Horan, Dennis J., Mall, David, Death, Dying, and Euthanasia, Frederick, Md.: Aletheia Books, University Publications of America, 1980.

Houghton, Peter, On Death, Dying, and not Dying, London; Philadelphia: J. Kingsley, 2001.

Inge, Dying, Death, and Bereavement: Theoretical Perspectives and Other Ways of Knowing, Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 1993.

Jeffreys, J. Shep, Helping Grieving People When Tears Are Not Enough: a Handbook for Care Providers, New York: Brunner-Routledge, 2005.

Kastenbaum, Robert. Death, Society, and Human Experience, 7th edition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 2001.

Kubler-Ross, Elisabeth, On Death and Dying, Scribner Classics, 1997.

Leming, Michael R. and Dickinson, George E., Understanding Dying, Death, and Bereavement, Wadsworth Publishing, 2006.

Lester, David, Katie's Diary: Unlocking the Mystery of a Suicide, New York: Brunner-Routledge, 2004.

McManners, John, Death and the Enlightenment: Changing Attitudes to Death in Eighteenth-Century France. New York: Oxford University Press, 1981.

Munley, Anne, The Hospice Alternative: a New Context for Death and Dying, New York: Basic Books, 1983.

Nouwen, Henri J.M., Our Greatest Gift: Meditation on Dying and Caring, New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 1995

Paxton, Frederick S. Christianizing Death. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1990.

Poss, Sylvia, Towards Death With Dignity: Caring For Dying People, London ; Boston: Allen & Unwin, 1981.

Shane, Thomas W., When Life Meets Death: Stories of Death and Dying, Truth and Courage, New York: Haworth Press, 1998.

Shannon, Thomas A., Death and Dying: a Reader, Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2004.

Sherr, Lorraine, Death, Dying and Bereavement: an Insight for Careers, London: Blackwell Scientific, 1989.

Veatch, Robert M., Death, Dying, and the Biological Revolution: Our Last Quest For Responsibility, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1976.

Wedding, Danny, Stuber, Margaret L., Behavior and Medicine, Toronto: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers, 2006.

Weinberger-Thomas, Catherine. Ashes of Immortality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.

Wyschogrod, Edith., The Phenomenon of Death: Faces of Mortality. New York, Harper & Row, 1973.

Cox, Gerry R., Bendiksen, Robert A., and Stevenson, Robert G., Making Sense of Death: Spiritual, Pastoral, and Personal Aspects of Death, Dying, and Bereavement (Death, Value and Meaning) Baywood Publishing Company, 2003.

Singh, Kathleen D., The Grace in Dying : How We Are Transformed Spiritually as We Die

Catholic Perspectives

Christie, Dolores L., Last Rights: A Catholic Perspective on End-Of-Life Decisions, Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003.

Kogan, Barry S., editor, A Time to be Born and a Time to Die : the Ethics of Choice, Hawthorne, N.Y. : Aldine De Gruyter, c1991.

McCormick, Richard A, Health and Medicine in the Catholic Tradition: Tradition in Transition, New York : Crossroad, 1984.

McNamara, Beverley, Fragile Lives: Death, Dying and Care, Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin, 2001.

Wilde, Kevin, Birth, Suffering, and Death: Catholic Perspectives at the Edges of Life, Boston : Kluwer Academic Publishers, c1992.

Buddhism/Tibetan Perspectives

Fremantle, Francesca, and Chögyam Trungpa, trans. The Tibetan Book of the Dead: The Great Liberation through Hearing in the Bardo. Berkeley, CA: Shambhala, 1975.

Hoffman, Yoel, comp. Japanese Death Poems. Rutland, VT: C. E. Tuttle Col, 1986.

Kapleau, Philip, The Wheel of Life and Death, Doubleday, New York, 1989.

Kapleau, Philip, and Paterson Simons, eds. The Wheel of Death: A Collection of Writings from Zen Buddhist and Other Sources on Death, Rebirth, Dying. New York: Harper & Row, 1971.

Langer, Rita, Buddhist Rituals of Death and Rebirth Contemporary Sri Lankan Practice and Its Origins, Routledge, 1997.

Lauf, Detlef Ingo. Secret Doctrines of the Tibetan Books of the Dead, translated by Graham Parkes. Boston: Shambhala, 1977.

Levine, Stephen, Healing Into Life and Death, Anchor Press/Doubleday, New York, 1987.

Levine, Stephen, Who Dies, Anchor Press/Doubleday, New York, 1982.

Mackenzie, Vicki, Reborn in the West: The Reincarnation Masters, Bloomsbury, London, 1995.

Mackenzie, Vicki, Reincarnation: The Boy Lama, Bloomsbury, London, 1988.

Mullin, Glenn H., Death and Dying: The Tibetan Tradition, Arkana, London, 1986.

Rinbochay, Lati and Jeffrey Hopkins Death, Intermediate State and Rebirth in Tibetan Buddhism, Rider & Co, London, 1979.

Sambhava, Padma, comp. The Tibetan Book of the Dead, translated by Robert A. F. Thurman. London: Aquarian/Thorsons, 1994.

Shcherbatskoi, Fedor Ippolitovich. The Conception of Buddhist Nirvana. The Hague: Mouton, 1965.

Sogyal Rinpoche, The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying, Rider, London, 1992.

Suzuki, Daisetz Teitaro. The Essentials of Zen Buddhism: An Anthology of the Writings of Daisetz T. Suzuki, edited by Bernard Phillips. London: Rider, 1963.

Suzuki, Daisetz Teitaro. Zen and Japanese Culture. New York: Pantheon Books, 1959.

Jewish Traditions in Death/Dying

Baumgarten, Albert I., Jan Assmann, and Gedaliahu G. Stroumsa, eds. Self, Soul, and Body in Religious Experience. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 1998.

Collins John J., and Michael Fishbane, eds. Death, Ecstasy, and Other Worldly Journeys. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995.

Goldberg, Sylvie Anne. Crossing the Jabbok: Illness and Death in Ashkenazi Judaism in Sixteenth-through Nineteenth-Century Prague, translated by Carol Cosman. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.

Isaacs, Ronald H., Every Person's Guide to Death and Dying in the Jewish Tradition, Jason Aronson Publishers, 1999.

Kraemer, David, The Meanings of Death in Rabbinic Judaism, Kindle, 2007.

Lamm, Maurice, The Jewish Way in Death and Mourning, Jonathan David Publishers, 2000.

Nuland, Sherwin B., Riemer, Jack, Jewish Insights on Death and Mourning, Syracuse University Press, May 2002.

Riemer, Jack, Wrestling with the Angel: Jewish Insights on Death and Mourning, Schocken, 1995.

Scholem, Gershom. Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism. New York: Schocken Books, 1961.

Shapiro, Rami M., Open Hands; A Jewish Guide on Dying, Death and Bereavement, Medic Publishing, 1991.

Solomon, Lewis D, The Jewish Tradition and Choices at the End of Life: A New Judaic Approach to Illness and Dying, University Press of America, 2001.

Urbach, Ephraim E. The Sages, Their Concepts and Beliefs and Practices, translated by Israel Abrahams. Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1975.

Hinduism and Death/Dying

Borman, William. "Upanishadic Eschatology: The Other Side of Death." In Arthur Berger, Paul Badham, Austin Kutscher, Joyce Berger, Michael Perry, and John Beloff eds., Death and Dying: Cross-Cultural and Multi-Disciplinary Views. Philadelphia: The Charles Press, 1989.

Easwaran, Eknath. Dialogue with Death. Petaluma, CA: Nilgiri Press, 1981.

Firth, Shirley, Dying, death and bereavement in a British Hindu community, Leuven: Peeters, 1997.

Holck, F. H. "The Vedre Period." In Frederick H. Holck ed., Death and Eastern Thought. New York: Abington Press, 1974.

Hopkins, Thomas. "Hindu Views of Death and Afterlife." In Hiroshi Obayashi ed., Death and Afterlife: Perspectives of World Religions. New York: Praeger Press, 1992.

Jarow, Rick. Tales for the dying : the death narrative of the Bhăgavata Purăna, Albany: State University of New York Press, 2003.

Justice, Christopher, Dying the good death : the pilgrimage to die in India's Holy City, Albany: State University of New York Press, 1997.

Knipe, David. "Sapindikarana: The Hindu Rate of Entry into Heaven." In Frank Reynolds and Earle Waugh eds., Religious Encounters with Death. University Park: Penn State University Press, 1977.

Koller, John. The Indian Way. New York: Macmillan, 1982.

Kramer, Kenneth. "Hindu Attitudes toward Death." The Sacred Art of Dying: How World Religions Understand Death. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, 1988.

Long, J. Bruce. "Death as a Necessity and a Gift in Hindu Mythology." In Frank Reynolds and Earle Waugh eds., Religious Encounters with Death. University Park: Penn State University Press, 1977.

Pandey, Alok, Dr., Death, Dying, and Beyond, Pondicherry Publishers, 2006.

Pearson, Anne M. "Hinduism." In Christopher Jay Johnson and Marsha G. McGee eds., How Different Religions View Death and Afterlife, 2nd edition. Philadelphia: The Charles Press, 1998.

Prashad, Jamuna. "The Hindu Concept of Death." In Arthur Berger, Paul Badham, Austin Kutscher, Joyce Berger, Michael Perry, and John Beloff eds., Death and Dying: Cross-Cultural and Multi-Disciplinary Views. Philadelphia: The Charles Press, 1989.

Sundararajan, K. R. "The Orthodox Philosophical Systems." In Frederick H. Holck ed., Death and Eastern Thought. New York: Abington Press, 1974.

Zaehner, R. C. Hindu Scriptures. New York: E. P. Dutton and Co., 1966.

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Withholding Treatment/Assisted Suicide

(1997). "Some religious views on the right to die." Washington Post: B6.

Bedham, P. (1995). "Should Christians accept the validity of voluntary euthanasia?" Stud Christ Ethics 8(2): 1-12.

Belgum, D. (1990). "The right to die at the end of your life." J Relig Health 29(2): 125-37.

Bishop, J. P. (2006). "Euthanasia, efficiency, and the historical distinction between killing a patient and allowing a patient to die." J Med Ethics 32(4): 220-4.

Bixler, F. (1976). "Euthanasia: the painful need for reasonable standards." Glendale Law Rev 1(2): 244-54.

Bleich, J. D. (1988). "Religious traditions and public policy." Assia Jew Med Ethics 1(1): 17-24.

Brett, A. S. and P. Jersild (2003). ""Inappropriate" treatment near the end of life: conflict between religious convictions and clinical judgment." Arch Intern Med 163(14): 1645-9.

Camps Herrero, C., J. Gavila Gregori, et al. (2005). "[Euthanasia in patients with cancer and the continuous-care providers]." Clin Transl Oncol 7(7): 278-84.

Connors, R. B., Jr. and M. L. Smith (1996). "Religious insistence on medical treatment. Christian theology and re-imagination." Hastings Cent Rep 26(4): 23-30.

Dahlstrom, G. (1996). "[Conditions of the good death--an important debate in our time]." Lakartidningen 93(5): 386-9.

Derr, P. (1982). "Who shall live? who shall die? who shall play God? Some reflections on euthanasia." Thought 57(227): 422-37.

Dorff, E. N. (1999). ""Heal us, Lord, and we shall be healed": the role of hope and destiny in Jewish bioethics." Judaism 48(2): 149-65.

Dyck, A. J. (1990). "The image of God: an ethical foundation for medicine." Linacre Q 57(1): 35-45.

Eidelman, A. I. (1986). "Caring for newborns: three world views. In Israel, families look to two messengers of God." Hastings Cent Rep 16(4): 18-9.

Ewer, M. S. (1989). "Philosophy of care, decision making, and ethical considerations." Crit Care Clin 5(3): 679-95.

Glannon, W. (2000). "Tracing the soul: medical decisions at the margins of life." Christ Bioeth 6(1): 49-69.

Godfrey, N. S., D. S. Kuehne, et al. (1997). "In the care of a nurse." Hastings Cent Rep 27(5): 23; discussion 23-4.

Godlovitch, G., I. Mitchell, et al. (2005). "Discontinuing life support in comatose patients: an example from Canadian case law." CMAJ 172(9): 1172-3.

Harvey, J. C. and E. D. Pellegrino (1994). "A response to euthanasia initiatives." Health Prog 75(2): 36-9, 53.

Kelner, M. (1995). "Activists and delegators: elderly patients' preferences about control at the end of life." Soc Sci Med 41(4): 537-45.

Kirchhoff, K. T. and A. I. Faas (2007). "Family support at end of life." AACN Adv Crit Care 18(4): 426-35.

Lavoie, M., D. Blondeau, et al. (1999). "Intentions to select a given level of care when confronted with an ethical issue: the impact of a living will." J Appl Soc Psychol 29(4): 772-85.

Lombardi, J. L. (1984). "Suicide and the service of God." Ethics 95(1): 56-67.Marczewski, K. and A. Przygoda-Dreher (2006). "End stage renal disease by patients with malignancy--ethical problems." Adv Med Sci 51: 127-32.

Nilstun, T. and G. Eriksson (1993). "[The good death and health care. A contribution to the impossible debate on euthanasia]." Lakartidningen 90(20): 1947-50.

Orr, R. D. and L. B. Genesen (1997). "Requests for "inappropriate" treatment based on religious beliefs." J Med Ethics 23(3): 142-7.

Rogoff, M. (2001). "In the absence of God: ethics in the modern hospital." Neonatal Netw 20(7): 69-70.

Rosenberg, J. B. (1993). "The voice of God." R I Med 76(12): 600.

Savage, D. (1980). "After Quinlan and Saikewicz: death, life, and God committees." Crit Care Med 8(2): 87-93.

Szawarski, Z. (1987). "[From the realm of the philosophy of medicine. Moral problems in the care of incurably ill children]." Pol Tyg Lek 42(9): 243-9.

Vanpee, D. and C. Swine (2004). "Scale of levels of care versus DNR orders." J Med Ethics 30(4): 351-2.

Walter, P. (1999). "The doctrine of informed consent: a tale of two cultures and two legal traditions." Issues Law Med 14(4): 357-73.

Westra, A. E., B. J. Smit, et al. (2007). "[Withholding treatment in terminally-ill newborns with Islamic parents]." Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 151(8): 449-52.

Wolfensberger, W. (1993). "A reflection on Alfred Hoche, the ideological godfather of the German 'euthanasia' program." Disabil Handicap Soc 8(3): 311-5.

Wyatt, J. S. (1996). "Ethical issues in the application of medical technology to paediatric intensive care: two views of the newborn." Sci Christ Belief 8(1): 3-20.

Zohar, N. J. (1995). "Human action and God's will: a problem of consistency in Jewish bioethics." J Med Philos 20(4): 387-402.

Zorowitz, R. A. (2004). "Ethical issues in end-of-life geriatric care: the approach of three monotheistic religions-Judaism, Catholicism, and Islam." J Am Geriatr Soc 52(7): 1224-5; author reply 1225.


(1989). "Continuing or discontinuing treatment: ethical criteria." Origins 19(17): 279-86.

(1989). "Holy living and holy dying." Origins 19(15): 241, 243-248.

(1993). "Care of the dying: a Catholic perspective. Part IV: Theological, moral, and pastoral response--the transformation of suffering. Catholic Health Association." Health Prog 74(5): 46-54.

(1993). "Pain management. Theological and ethical principles governing the use of pain relief for dying patients. Task Force on Pain Management, Catholic Health Association." Health Prog 74(1): 30-9, 65.

(1993). "Pastoral reflections: euthanasia, assisted suicide." Origins 23(21): 373-8.

(1993). "The United States Bishops' Committee statement on nutrition and hydration."

(1994). "What is euthanasia and what is not." Origins 24(23): 393-6.

(1996). "Moral principles concerning infants with anencephaly." Origins 26(17): 276.

(1997). "CHA amicus curiae brief on physician-assisted suicide. Catholic Health Association." Health Prog 78(3): 35-43, 47.

(1997). "Some religious views on the right to die." Washington Post: B6.

(1999). "Nutrition and hydration: moral and pastoral reflections. National Conference of Catholic Bishops Committee for Pro-life Activities." J Contemp Health Law Policy 15(2): 455-77.

(2004). "Reflections on artificial nutrition and hydration: colloquium of the Canadian Catholic Bioethics Institute (CCBI)." Natl Cathol Bioeth Q 4(4): 773-82.

Barry, R. (1985). "The ethics of providing life-sustaining nutrition and fluids to incompetent patients." J Fam Cult 1(2): 23-37.

Barry, R. (1995). "The development of the Roman Catholic teachings on suicide." Notre Dame J Law Ethics Public Policy 9(2): 449-501.

Bartmann, P. (2003). "Physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia: German Protestantism, conscience, and the limits of purely ethical reflection." Christ Bioeth 9(2-3): 203-25.

Bayer, E. J. (1988). "Intubation of the irreversibly comatose: a response to Robert Barry, O.P." Linacre Q 55(1): 77-82.

Bayley, C. and V. Michel (1985). "Ethical and legal issues in the treatment of incompetent religious." Health Prog 66(10): 18-21, 58.

Berger, J. (1987). "Pope warns health workers on straying." NY Times (Print): A18-9.

Bernardin, J. and Cardinal (1986). "The consistent ethic of life." Health Prog 67(6): 48-51.

Bleich, J. D. (1976). "Ethico-halakhic considerations in the practice of medicine." Dyny Ysrl 7: 87-135.

Bohlen, C. (1995). "Pope offers 'gospel of life' vs. 'culture of death'." NY Times (Print): A1, A12-13.

Bole, T. J. (1990). "Intensive care units (ICUs), and ordinary means: turning virtue into vice." Linacre Q 57(1): 68-77.

Bole, T. J. (2000). "The person in secular and in Orthodox-Catholic bioethics." Christ Bioeth 6(1): 85-112.

Bole, T. J., 3rd (1990). "The ordinary-extraordinary distinction reconsidered: a moral context for the proper calculus of benefits and burdens." HEC Forum 2(4): 219-32.

Boozang, K. M. (1995). "Deciding the fate of religious hospitals in the emerging health care market." Houst Law Rev 31: 1429-516.

Bradley, G. V. (1993). "Life's Dominion: a review essay." Notre Dame Law Rev 69(2): 329-91.

Bresnahan, J. F. (1991). "Catholic spirituality and medical interventions in dying." America (NY) 164(14): 670-5.

Bresnahan, J. F. (1995). "Observations on the rejection of physician-assisted suicide: a Roman Catholic perspective." Christ Bioeth 1(3): 256-84.

Bresnahan, J. F. (1995). "The Catholic art of dying." America (NY) 173(14): 12-6.

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2(3): 341-2; discussion 342-52.

Cataldo, P. J. (2004). "Pope John Paul II on nutrition and hydration: a change of Catholic teaching?" Natl Cathol Bioeth Q 4(3): 513-36.

Clark, P. (2006). "Tube feedings and persistent vegetative state patients: ordinary or extraordinary means?" Christ Bioeth 12(1): 43-64.

Daly, D. J. (2007). "Prudence and the debate on death and dying. In the Catholic theological tradition, temporal life is not the highest good." Health Prog 88(5): 49-54.

Doerflinger, R. M. (1995). "The Good Samaritan and the "Good Death": Catholic reflections on euthanasia." Issues Law Med 11(2): 149-58.

Doerflinger, R. M. (2004). "John Paul II on the "vegetative state"." Ethics Medics 29(6): 2-4.

Drane, J. F. (2006). "Stopping nutrition and hydration technologies: a conflict between traditional Catholic ethics and church authority." Christ Bioeth 12(1): 11-28.

Eberl, J. T. (2003). "Aquinas on euthanasia, suffering, and palliative care." Natl Cathol

Evans, M. (2007). "Vatican clarifies position. Most patients in vegetative state should still be fed." Mod Healthc 37(37): 4.

Freer, J. and S. Wear (2002). "Culture wars in New York state: ongoing political resistance by religious groups to the Family Health Care Decisions Act." Christ Bioeth 8(1): 9-24.

Garcia, J. L. (2006). "A Catholic perspective on the ethics of artificially providing food and water." Linacre Q 73(2): 132-52.

Hamel, R. (1998). "A better approach to care of the dying. Catholic healthcare and the Catholic community can present an alternative to physician-assisted suicide." Health Prog 79(5): 54-9.

Healy, J. (2001). "Physicians ought not kill." Linacre Q 68(1): 4-17.

Iltis, A. S. (2006). "On the impermissibility of euthanasia in Catholic healthcare organizations." Christ Bioeth 12(3): 281-90.

Jans, J. (2002). "Christian churches and euthanasia in the Low Countries: background, argumentation and commentary." Ethical Perspect 9(2-3): 119-33.

John Paul, I. P. (2004). "Papal address on food and water." Ethics Medics 29(6): 1-2.

Kavanaugh, J. F. (2004). "Artificial feeding--'The Pope's argument rests on human rights. Why can't we see that?'" America (NY) 190(20): 7.

May, A. T. (2003). "Physician-assisted suicide, euthanasia, and Christian bioethics: moral controversy in Germany." Christ Bioeth 9(2-3): 273-83.

Muhrel, E. (2003). "Do humans own themselves ? Questions concerning their self-determination and free disposition of self." Christ Bioeth 9(2-3): 303-14.

Narbekovas, A. and K. Meilius (2003). "Letting die and mercy killing." Med Etika Bioet 10(3-4): 2-7.

Nelson, L. J. (2004). "Catholic bioethics and the case of Terri Schiavo." Cumberland Law Rev 35(3): 543-74.

O'Brien, D., J. P. Slosar, et al. (2004). "Utilitarian pessimism, human dignity, and the vegetative state: a practical analysis of the papal allocution." Natl Cathol Bioeth Q 4(3): 497-512.

O'Rourke, K. D. (2005). "The Catholic tradition on forgoing life support." Natl Cathol Bioeth Q 5(3): 537-53.

O'Rourke, K. (1992). "Pain relief: the perspective of Catholic tradition." J Pain Symptom Manage 7(8): 485-91.

Panicola, M. (2001). "Catholic teaching on prolonging life: setting the record straight." Hastings Cent Rep 31(6): 14-25.

Panicola, M. R. (2001). "Withdrawing nutrition and hydration. The Catholic tradition offers guidance for the treatment of patients in a persistent vegetative state." Health Prog 82(6): 28-33.

Pope John, P., II (2004). "Life-sustaining treatments and vegetative state: scientific advances and ethical dilemmas." Issues Law Med 20(2): 167-70.

Rodriguez, E. (2003). "The arguments for euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide: Catholic response." Linacre Q 70(1): 60-73.

Scanlon, C. (2003). "Ethical concerns in end-of-life care." Am J Nurs 103(1): 48-55; quiz 56.

Schmidt, K. W. (2001). "The patient's progress from this world to that which is to come: commentary on the Consensus Statement of the Working Group on Roman Catholic Approaches to Determining Critical Care." Christ Bioeth 7(2): 211-25.

Seitz, M. J. (2004). "The role of the priest in bioethical decision making." Natl Cathol Bioeth Q 4(4): 681-9.

Sullivan, S. M. (2007). "The development and nature of the ordinary/extraordinary means distinction in the Roman Catholic tradition." Bioethics 21(7): 386-97.

Tan, S. Y., B. Chun, et al. (2003). "Creating a medical futility policy. Physicians at a Honolulu hospital describe the experience." Health Prog 84(4): 14-20.

Ulrich, L. P. (2001). "A reaction to the Consensus Statement of the Working Group on Roman Catholic Approaches to Determining Appropriate Critical Care." Christ Bioeth 7(2): 243-7.

Valko, N. G. (2002). "Should sedation be terminal?" Natl Cathol Bioeth Q 2(4): 601-8.

Velez, G. J. (2005). "Death of John Paul II and the basic human care for the sick and the dying." Ethics Med 21(3): 167-77.

Ventura-Junca, P. (2001). "A commentary on the Consensus Statement of the Working Group on Roman Catholic Approaches to Determining Appropriate Critical Care." Christ Bioeth 7(2): 271-89.

Welie, J. V. (2005). "When medical treatment is no longer in order: toward a new interpretation of the ordinary-extraordinary distinction." Natl Cathol Bioeth Q 5(3): 517-36.

Zoloth, L. (2001). "Limiting access to medical treatment in an age of medical progress: developing a Catholic consensus: a response from Jewish tradition." Christ Bioeth 7(2): 193-201.

Rodriguez, E. (2003). "The arguments for euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide: Catholic response." Linacre Q 70(1): 60-73.

Schotsmans, P. T. (2003). "Relational responsibility, and not only stewardship, a Roman Catholic view on voluntary euthanasia for dying and non-dying patients." Christ Bioeth 9(2-3): 285-98.

Shannon, T. A. (2006). "Nutrition and hydration: an analysis of the recent papal statement in the light of the Roman Catholic bioethical tradition." Christ Bioeth 12(1): 29-41.

Walter, J. J. (2002). "Terminal sedation: a Catholic perspective." Update 18(2): 6-8, 12.


Bardfeld, P. A. (1976). "Jewish medical ethics." Reconstructionist 42(6): 7-12.

Sinclair, D. B. (1992). "The interaction between law and morality in Jewish law in the areas of feticide and killing a terminally ill individual." Crim Justice Ethics 11(2): 76-84.


Bilimoria, P. (1992). "The Jaina ethic of voluntary death: a report from India." Bioethics 6(4): 331-55.

Joshi, S. R. (2005). "Whose life is it, anyway? The evolving face of euthanasia." J Assoc Physicians India 53: 279-81.


Ilkilic, I. (2007). "[Medical ethical aspects of culture in social interactions with Muslim patients]." Dtsch Med Wochenschr 132(30): 1587-90.

Iyilikci, L., S. Erbayraktar, et al. (2004). "Practices of anaesthesiologists with regard to withholding and withdrawal of life support from the critically ill in Turkey." Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 48(4): 457-62.


Stonington, S. and P. Ratanakul (2006). "Is there a global bioethics? End-of-life in Thailand and the case for local difference." PLoS Med 3(10): e439.

Various Spiritual/Cultural Perspectives on Death and Dying

Barrett, R. K. (2002). "Death and dying in the black experience." J Palliat Med 5(5): 793-9.

Beccaro, M., M. Costantini, et al. (2006). "Actual and preferred place of death of cancer patients. Results from the Italian survey of the dying of cancer (ISDOC)." J Epidemiol Community Health 60(5): 412-6.

Braun, K. L. and R. Nichols (1997). "Death and dying in four Asian American cultures: a descriptive study." Death Stud 21(4): 327-59.

Campbell, D. A. (2001). "Hope and harm: a delicate balance. Death and dying in multicultural Australia." Med J Aust 175(10): 540-1.

Char, D. F., K. S. Tom, et al. (1996). "A view of death and dying among the Chinese and Japanese." Hawaii Med J 55(12): 286-90, 295.

Charlton, R., S. Dovey, et al. (1995). "Attitudes to death and dying in the UK, New Zealand, and Japan." J Palliat Care 11(1): 42-7.

Clarke, J. (1993). "A black perspective on death and dying: comforting man on his spiritual journey." Pride Inst J Long Term Home Health Care 12(2): 28-30.

Gelfand, M. (1983). "Traditional African attitudes towards death and dying." Cent Afr J Med 29(5): 111-6.

Guroian, V. (1993). "Death and dying well in the Orthodox liturgical tradition." Second Opin 19(1): 41-59.

Haas, A. M. (1993). "[Dying and the concept of death in Paracelsus' perspective]." Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax 82(36): 979-85.

Hallenbeck, J., M. K. Goldstein, et al. (1996). "Cultural considerations of death and dying in the United States." Clin Geriatr Med 12(2): 393-406.

Hatzinikolaou, N. (2003). "Prolonging life or hindering death? An Orthodox perspective on death, dying and euthanasia." Christ Bioeth 9(2-3): 187-201.

Herkommer, H. (2001). "[Old European "ars moriendi" (the art of dying) as a challenge for our approach to death and dying]." Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax 90(49): 2144-51.

Hosking, M., G. Whiting, et al. (2000). "Cultural attitudes towards death and dying: a South African perspective." Palliat Med 14(5): 437-9.

Hotson, K. E., S. M. Macdonald, et al. (2004). "Understanding death and dying in select first nations communities in northern Manitoba: issues of culture and remote service delivery in palliative care." Int J Circumpolar Health 63(1): 25-38.

Inoue, H., H. Kanaoka, et al. (1985). "[Sociocultural aspects of death and dying in Japan]." Kango Tenbo 10(9): 871-81.

Kimura, R. (1996). "Death and dying in Japan." Kennedy Inst Ethics J 6(4): 374-8.

Klasen, H. (1993). "["When the soul is depleted, the body dies". Dying and death on the island Nias/Indonesia]." Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol 43(11): 381-6.

Koffman, J. and I. J. Higginson (2004). "Dying to be home? Preferred location of death of first-generation black Caribbean and native-born white patients in the United Kingdom." J Palliat Med 7(5): 628-36.

Komaromy, C. (2004). "Cultural diversity in death and dying." Nurs Manag (Harrow) 11(8): 32-6.

Kwan, F. C. (1993). "Death and dying: a Chinese viewpoint." Pride Inst J Long Term Home Health Care 12(2): 21-2.

MacPherson, D. W., F. Guerillot, et al. (2000). "Death and dying abroad: the Canadian experience." J Travel Med 7(5): 227-33.

McKenney, E. J. (1977). "Death and dying in Tennessee." Memphis State Univ Law Rev 7(4): 503-54.

Mjelde-Mossey, L. A. and C. L. Chan (2007). "Survey on death and dying in Hong Kong: attitudes, beliefs, and preferred end-of-life care." Soc Work Health Care 45(1): 49-65.

Nishimoto, P. (1996). "Venturing into the unknown: cultural beliefs about death and dying." Oncol Nurs Forum 23(6): 889-94.

Rousseau, Paul. "Spirituality and the Dying Patient" Journal of Clinical Oncology, Vol 18, Issue 9 (May), 2000: 2000-2002

Siefken, S. (1993). "The Hispanic perspective on death and dying: a combination of respect, empathy, and spirituality." Pride Inst J Long Term Home Health Care 12(2): 26-8.

Stannard, D. E. (1973). "Death and dying in Puritan New England." Am Hist Rev 78: 1305-30.

Sullivan, M., J. Ormel, et al. (1998). "Beliefs concerning death, dying, and hastening death among older, functionally impaired Dutch adults: a one-year longitudinal study." J Am Geriatr Soc 46(10): 1251-7.

Tichauer, R. W. (1964). "Attitudes toward Death and Dying among the Aymara Indians of Bolivia." J Am Med Womens Assoc 19: 463-6.

Turner-Weeden, P. (1995). "Death and dying from a Native American perspective." Hosp J 10(2): 11-3.

Yeun, E. (2005). "Attitudes of elderly Korean patients toward death and dying: an application of Q-methodology." Int J Nurs Stud 42(8): 871-80.

Yick, A. G. and R. Gupta (2002). "Chinese cultural dimensions of death, dying, and bereavement: focus group findings." J Cult Divers 9(2): 32-42.

Braun, K. L. and R. Nichols (1996). "Cultural issues in death and dying." Hawaii Med J 55(12): 260-4.

Jennings, B. (2003). "Culture change in death & dying." Provider 29(3): 42-4, 46.

Schultz, C. A. (1979). "Cultural aspects of death and dying." J Emerg Nurs 5(1): 24-7.

Warren, B. J. (2005). "The cultural expression of death and dying." Case Manager 16(1): 44-7.

Steele, R. L. (1977). "Dying, death, and bereavement among the Maya Indians of Mesoamerica: a study in anthropological psychology." Am Psychol 32(12): 1060-8.

Kyriacou, C. B. (1983). "Differences in cultural attitudes towards death and dying." Aust Fam Physician 12(4): 257-8.

Fairchild, L. (1986). "Death and dying on the southern Great Plains around 1900." Panhand-Plains Hist Rev 59: 34-53.

Halfe, L. B. (1989). "The circle: death and dying from a native perspective." J Palliat Care 5(1): 37-41.

Rosner, F. (1991). "Jewish perspectives on death and dying." Assia Jew Med Ethics 2(1): 38-45.

Schadewaldt, H. (1993). "[Death and dying in medieval times]." Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax 82(36): 986-92.

van der Geest, S. (2004). "Dying peacefully: considering good death and bad death in Kwahu-Tafo, Ghana." Soc Sci Med 58(5): 899-911.

Holloway, M. (2006). "Death the great leveller? Towards a transcultural spirituality of dying and bereavement." J Clin Nurs 15(7): 833-9.

Jewish and Death and Dying

Gershan, J. A. (1985). "Judaic ethical beliefs and customs regarding death and dying." Crit Care Nurse 5(1): 32-4.

Rosner, F. (1986). "Jewish perspectives on issues of death and dying." J Halacha Contemporary Society No.11: 50-69.

Ross, H. M. (1998). "Jewish tradition in death and dying." Medsurg Nurs 7(5): 275-9.

Sangerman, J. J. (1993). "The Jewish perspective on death and dying: a multifaceted response." Pride Inst J Long Term Home Health Care 12(2): 23-5.

Werber, S. J. (1996). "Ancient answers to modern questions: death, dying, and organ transplants--a Jewish law perspective." J Law Health 11(1-2): 13-44.

Hinduism and Death and Dying

Agarwal, R. (2005). "Palliative care--Hinduism." Dolentium Hominum 20(1): 91-3.

Islam and Death and Dying

Sarhill, N., S. LeGrand, et al. (2001). "The terminally ill Muslim: death and dying from the Muslim perspective." Am J Hosp Palliat Care 18(4): 251-5.

Sheikh, A. (1998). "Death and dying--a Muslim perspective." J R Soc Med 91(3): 138-40.

Buddhism and Death and Dying

Hughes, James J., and Damien Keown. "Buddhism and Medical Ethics: A Bibliographic Introduction." Journal of Buddhist Ethics 2 (1995).

Spirituality and Death and Dying

(1998). "Cancer care during the last phase of life." J Clin Oncol 16(5): 1986-96.

Sheehan, M. N. (2000). "On dying well: how does one live spiritually in the hope of dying well?" America (NY) 183(3): 12-5.

White, D. B. and J. M. Luce (2004). "Palliative care in the intensive care unit: barriers, advances, and unmet needs." Crit Care Clin 20(3): 329-43, vii.

O'Connell, L. J. (1995). "Religious dimensions of dying and death." West J Med 163(3): 231-5.

Aring, C. D. (1968). "Intimations of mortality. An appreciation of death and dying." Ann Intern Med 69(1): 137-52.

Baum, D. B. (1979). "A pastoral model for dealing with death and dying." AMHC Forum 31(3): 50-4.

Benson, G., Jr. (1972). "Death and dying: a psychoanalytic perspective." Hosp Prog 53(3): 52-5 passim.

El-Nimr, G., L. Green, et al. (2003). "In search of a good death: Spiritual care of dying patients needs to be well prepared." BMJ 327(7408): 224.

Halifax, J. (1997). "Joan Halifax, PhD. Being with death and dying. Interview by Bonnie Horrigan." Altern Ther Health Med 3(4): 68-75.

Holstein, M. (1997). "Reflections on death and dying." Acad Med 72(10): 848-55.

Kacela, X. (2004). "Religious maturity in the midst of death and dying." Am J Hosp Palliat Care 21(3): 203-8.

Proulx, K. and C. Jacelon (2004). "Dying with dignity: the good patient versus the good death." Am J Hosp Palliat Care 21(2): 116-20.

Rodriguez Del Pozo, P. and J. J. Fins (2005). "Death, dying and informatics: misrepresenting religion on MedLine." BMC Med Ethics 6: E6.

Miller, D. K., J. T. Chibnall, et al. (2005). "Supportive-affective group experience for persons with life-threatening illness: reducing spiritual, psychological, and death-related distress in dying patients." J Palliat Med 8(2): 333-43.

Song, J., E. R. Ratner, et al. (2007). "Experiences with and attitudes toward death and dying among homeless persons." J Gen Intern Med 22(4): 427-34.

Dugan, D. O. (1987). "Death & dying. Emotional, spiritual, and ethical support for patients and families." J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 25(7): 21, 25-9.

Bingley, A. F., E. McDermott, et al. (2006). "Making sense of dying: a review of narratives written since 1950 by people facing death from cancer and other diseases." Palliat Med 20(3): 183-95.

Kegley, J. (2005). "A new framework for facilitating decisions on death and dying." Med Law 24(2): 403-10.

Mermann, A. C. (1992). "Spiritual aspects of death and dying." Yale J Biol Med 65(2): 137-42.

Velez, G. J. (2005). "Death of John Paul II and the basic human care for the sick and the dying." Ethics Med 21(3): 167-77.

Reagan, P., R. Hurst, et al. (2003). "Physician-assisted death: dying with dignity?" Lancet Neurol 2(10): 637-43.

Bogusz, J. (1987). "[Physician and priest confronting the severely ill patient (reflections on dying and death)]." Przegl Lek 44(11): 772-6.

Loewy, E. H. (1988). "Oh death, where is thy sting? Reflections on dealing with dying patients." J Med Humanit Bioeth 9(2): 135-42.

Scheidt, F. (1983). "[The human body and mortality. Philosophical thoughts on dying and death]." Fortschr Med 101(16): 725-6, 761.

O'Rourke, K. D. (2002). "The Illinois bishops on death and dying. A pastoral letter presents Church teaching in a succinct and understandable manner." Health Prog 83(2): 13-5, 59.

Cecil, R. (1982). "Holy dying: evangelical attitudes to death." Hist Today 32: 30-4.

Wink, P. and J. Scott (2005). "Does religiousness buffer against the fear of death and dying in late adulthood? Findings from a longitudinal study." J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 60(4): P207-14.

Feldman, D. M. (1984). "Rabbinic comment: Definition of death and dying." Mt Sinai J Med 51(1): 73-6.

Jaretzki, A., 3rd (1976). "Death with dignity--passive euthanasia. Guide to physician dealing with dying patients." N Y State J Med 76(4): 539-43.

Ross, H. M. (1981). "Societal/cultural views regarding death and dying." Top Clin Nurs 3(3): 1-16.

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